Tuesday, November 6, 2007

TIMOTHEUS VERINUS in more detail


The Special Characteristics
of the Pietistic Evil


In part two of Loescher's book, he takes on one by one the main tendencies or evils of Pietism. I'll list them for you here, with my summaries of what they mean. Do any of them look particularly familiar?

Pious-appearing Indifferentism
This means that doctrines, faith; those supports which serve to preserve the church (constitutions, symbolical books, ordinances, etc) are considered indifferent or unimportant.
The Contempt for the Means of Grace
These outer things are mere dead letters and empty acts without true piety.
The Invalidation of the Ministry
"In religious matters, the fence is here the lowest, and therefore they attempt to climb over it more often and more obviously than in other points." The Office is destroyed, and Pietists look only at piety and the person.
The Mixing of Righteousness by Faith with Works
"Double justification": for the second essential and more powerful justification, piety is required. Faith is active in justification. Good works are present in the work of justification. The basis of salvation is taking up the cross of Christ in true holiness.
Millenialism
The expectation that "the kingdom of the cross (in which believers are tested) and the church militant in this life and on earth will cease."
Terminism
The "prevenient and offering grace of God is completely removed from soneone before his death". This is about the window of salvation completely closing prior to death.
Precisionism (Adiophora)
"...The absolute rejection and condemnation of all natural desire and love for even civil adiaphora." The resultant binding of consciences and the grasping of power by proponents. Love for creatures is a sin. One must love only God. Forget games, dancing, comedies (!!), jokes. I kid you not.
Mysticism
Heathen philosophy; "...The erroneous imagination of high and internal spiritual things going beyond the Scripture." The Spark of the Divine Image. Rebirth originates from this Spark. Confusion of nature and grace.
The Abolition of the Supports of Religion
Related to Indifferentism, with more detail.
Perfectionism
The soul of Pietism. "They have all too firmly imagined that they do GOD a service when they, under the good name of the possibility of active Christianity, push the matter too far and teach an absolutely necessary and possible perfection." Loescher takes pains to not put out the Spirit's fire here. The concern is teaching the seeking of perfection as necessary and possible.
Reformatism
The distinction between building and improving on the one hand, and reforming. "The former is always necessary...The latter occurs only when the chief work is ruined, and the whole matter is to be placed on another foot." If not all members of a church are pious; condescension; a "completely new light must still arise, and a new doctrine come forth." A great reformation is proclaimed when old church usages are replaced willy nilly with new, "better" practices.

***
Chewy stuff, eh? It is quite evident that these things are alive and well and in fact are beginning to define American Christianity, or at least American civil religion. This in turn constantly makes inroads into congregations as Neo-Pietists come galloping through, armed and ready to remake the church in their own image. An unprepared congregation can be bowled over, and before they know it a drum set, guitars, a sound system and very emotional singers are fronting the sanctuary, singing something that sounds vaguely Christian but they can't tell because the Word is subsumed in the music. Where'd THEY come from???

But don't get me started on that.





26 comments:

Steven Craig Miller said...

Bruce writes: Pious-appearing Indifferentism: This means that doctrines, faith; those supports which serve to preserve the church (constitutions, symbolical books, ordinances, etc) are considered indifferent or unimportant.

Unimportant compared to what? Salvation? Justification? There are those extremists in most every denomination who seem to believe that to be a “true Christian” one has pass a theological exam. The exam changes from denomination to denomination, from theology to theology, but the idea remains the same, one becomes a “true Christian” by one’s knowledge of doctrine. To them “faith” is used to mean “a body of belief/teaching.” On the other hand, Pietists believe that faith is the result of God’s grace transforming our hearts. The result is not an increase of one’s knowledge about theology, but rather our hearts can now truly love God and others. According to the Pietists, it is love for God and others which is the mark of a “true Christian,” not the articulation of any theological point of view. How evil is that?

Bruce Gee said...

Pietism as a full-fledged movement is legalistic, not freedom-loving. It doesn't recognize boundaries that God established, such as the OHM. It doesn't even recognize the predigtamt-- the obligation of the church to teach the whole counsel of God. No one is saying that love of God or of the neighbor is evil. But to imply that that is all Pietism is about is reductionistic.

Indifferentism in matters of doctrine, the Confessions, and church structure is very dangerous for the church. Certainly you understand that these structures protect the very gospel which we love and proclaim?

As for the test of being a true Christian: the only Christian body in history that holds to simul iustus et peccator is the confessional Lutheran church. That doctrine recognizes that we remain sinners all of our lives--each bears a mountain range of sin--and the only solution is the forgiveness of sins given in the means of grace. Try running that past a true Pietist. He'd want to peer into your heart to make sure you "felt" spiritual. Kyrie Eleison. Pietism is so pretty in the morning, but by day's end, it is a jangle of legalism to make a Pharisee sit up and take notice.

Does that mean that orthodox Lutheranism doesn't need a little piety to salt it? No. We're always in danger of either cheap grace (the laity) or breaking down the relationship between justification and sanctification. A little Charles Wesley is a healthy thing.

However you want to "mark" a Christian--a very dangerous game in my opinion--the "marks" of the church, which the Pietists largely rejected, remain the same: the external Word and Sacraments, and believers (verified as such by their confession) gathered around these. it isn't flashy, but it is true.

Bruce Gee said...

Steven:

To clarify Indifferentism, I'll quote Loescher:

It appears in the following teachings of the Pietists:

"1. Systematic truth and pure doctrine are unimportant; they do not belong to the righteous life.
2. No error can harm any part of the soul's salvation [could this be "once saved, always saved"?]
3. Virtuous heathen were also holy, even if they remained heathen; Christ and the kingdom of grace were hidden in them.
4. Someone who denies the Holy Trinity, the deity, and atonement of Christ can be truly pious and saved.
5. There is only one religion, namely: piety; the rest are human trifles and sectarian.
6. Holy Scripture, and what one learns from it, is dead letters and empty rinds.
...
9. It is not necessary to have an outward religion.
10. To consider one relgion to be the best in matters of faith is sectarian."

Steven Craig Miller said...

To: Bruce,

I have a few questions for you.

(1) Is this book by Loescher a balanced view of German pietism, or is it merely a hatchet job which is only interested in making the German pietists look bad?

(2) Have you read any of the works by German pietists themselves, or is your information about German pietism only second hand?

(3) Is your goal in discussing German pietism to discuss both the pros and cons, or only the cons?

You wrote: As for the test of being a true Christian: the only Christian body in history that holds to simul iustus et peccator is the confessional Lutheran church. That doctrine recognizes that we remain sinners all of our lives--each bears a mountain range of sin--and the only solution is the forgiveness of sins given in the means of grace. Try running that past a true Pietist.

Yes, we remain sinners. I experience that on a personal level. But are you suggesting that everything remains just as before, that there is no change? Is a person before salvation simply the same person after salvation? You didn’t make that part clear. You seem so obsessed with showing the faults of German pietism, that you simply failed to say anything good about becoming a Christian.

Perhaps I picked the wrong blog to respond to. What I would like to see would be a thoughtful criticism of German pietism without all the animosity you appear to have towards them. Calling Pietism an “evil” seems belligerent.

Ernst Käsemann wrote: ”We have every reason not to adopt a belittling attitude to Pietism. Our church life still continues to draw its nourishment from its roots in Pietism ...” (“New Testament Questions of Today” page 4).

What I would like to see is a balanced critical look at German Pietism which would look at its pros and cons, and not be merely a hatchet job of polemical writings to belittle German Pietism. I imagine that you will tell me that I’m posting on the wrong blog.

Bruce Gee said...

" I imagine that you will tell me that I’m posting on the wrong blog."

Yeah, maybe. It is interesting to chat with you, but you may have the wrong idea about what I'm doing. I'm giving a book report. I never claimed to be searching out whatever good there is in Pietism. If what is listed by Loescher happens to be true, then Pietism has a lot to answer for, don't you agree?

1)The book by Loescher is the only existing writings by an orthodox Lutheran at the time of Pietism's full flowering. In the context of the day, when Loescher was being attacked rather viciously by Lange (with the approval of the major German Pietist theologians), it is actually quite balanced and not a hatchet job at all. He was trying to address the errors of the major religious voices of his day by appealing to the Lutheran Confessions and orthodox Lutheran doctrine. As a confessional Lutheran, I find that altogether reasonable, and in context, courageous.

2) Not directly. They are quoted extensively in Loescher's book, and I have no reason, given the care with which he writes, to imagine he is misquoting them. He occasionally takes someone out of context. Anyway, to the extent that I'm able to read quotes by the German Pietists, it isn't second hand. These are actually source documents I'm reading, if admittedly from the point of view of the orthodox investigating the pietists.

3)Hatchet job, man!! :) Just kidding.
My goal is to report on Loescher's investigation of the Pietists' theology and practice.

As for the rest, being "saint and sinner" obviously does not mean being only sinner. It describes the condition St. Paul writes about in Romans 7.

Pardon me if I seem obsessed. A bit of a strong word that, but maybe I'm foaming at the mouth and not aware of it.

Frankly, I'm surprised you aren't bursting with indignation at the list of errors Loescher accuses the Pietists of holding and committing. Surely as a good Lutheran (or, are you no longer a Lutheran? I couldn't tell from your first comments), you would see the many grave errors that, had they existed, would threaten the very gospel.

Let's assume Pietism is this good, necessary expression of Christianity, shall we? And then let's assume that Loescher's charges against Pietism are true. Give me some good examples of what is left to salvage from such a group? Give me a reason not to completely condemn them. Or show me how Loescher is wrong.

As for the Kaseman quote: it is pretty general, don't you think? It proves nothing, and I have no idea what nourishment he is writing of. Can you unpack that a bit? What does Kaseman claim to salvage--nay, draw nourishment from-- from what appears to be a movement that is not Lutheran at all?

Again, I am very much in favor of personal piety. I am not blind to the Lutheran cultural tendency to just not appear to respond to the gospel. I think Lutherans could and should talk a lot more about sanctification (and if they did, you'd soon find them back, marvelling at justification and the wondrous gospel, sure enough!). I GET Ephesians 2:10, especially in light of Eph. 2:8,9.

Thanks for the discussion. This blog has been dead long enough. How about the rest of you, my thousands of readers (ok, my dozen readers...)? Got any input?

Anonymous said...

Hey, where was that picture taken at the top of the page? Is that inside an Eastern Orthodox church?

Bruce Gee said...

Anonymous: "Hey, where was that picture taken at the top of the page? Is that inside an Eastern Orthodox church?"

Greek Orthodox, Pachyammos, Cyprus

Lutheran Lucciola said...

I would like to join in more, but I'm new to the subject!
The no comedy and laughing or entertainment part (if I remember from the original page), would already make me run away. I couldn't live.

Steven Craig Miller said...

To: Bruce,

I enjoyed your last message.

I found the following:

Paul Tillich, in his book “A History of Christian Thought” (edited by Carl Braaten) wrote: “The pietists, and especially the greatest of them, Philip Jacob Spener, wrote in continual reference to Luther. He showed that all the elements of Pietism were present in the early Luther, and that Orthodoxy had removed them in favor of the objective contents of doctrine. Spencer tried to show that Orthodoxy had grasped only one side of Luther. Pietism was justified in this respect. Pietism also had a great influence on culture as a whole. It was the first to act in terms of social ethics. The pietists in Halle founded the first orphanage and started the first missionary enterprises” (page 284).

Tillich goes on to note that Spener was mild, it was with Francke and the Halle pietists who took pietism to its radical level. Tillich goes on to note: “They fought against dancing, the theater, games, beautiful dresses, banquets, shallow talk in daily life, and in general resembled the Puritan attitude. In this connection, however, I would like to say that it was not so much the Puritans who produced this system of vital repression so common in America; it was more the pietistic evangelical movements of the mid-nineteenth century which were responsible for this condemnation of smoking, drinking, movies, etc” (page 286).

It seems to me that initially German pietism was a necessary reaction to Lutheran orthodoxy. But that unfortunately pietism evolved to the point where it left behind its Lutheran roots and became a repressive form of spirituality.

Bruce Gee said...

Well, I'm definitely on board with the later Pietists vis a vis "shallow talk in daily life". That needs an upgrade worldwide.

Good quote by Tillich. And I think you are right, Spener got the ball rolling and may have been spot on with regard to his quarrels with the later orthodox. But like the anabaptists of Luther's time, it spun out of control fairly quickly, and by the time Loescher came on the scene, someone had to say something.

By the way, that word "evil" in my title is Loescher's. If you've read Bondage of the Will, you'll know that sort of talk was de rigeur for the times.

Humankind isn't corporately good at establishing and keeping balance, and if good Lutheran theology is anything at all, it is about balance. So it isn't surprising that historically there is this swish back and forth between hyper-orthodox and hyper-pietist. My quarrel with the pietists , notwithstanding their claims to gospel freedom (by knocking down the barriers that ironically, protect the pure gospel), they ended up building almost entirely upon the law. That is always what happens when sanctification is promoted at the expense of justification. The gospel is lost and we find ourselves doin' for ourselves. Heck, you want that, better to remain a heathen. Much, MUCH more fun!

If you want to really understand Luther's take on sanctification, then you must study his doctrine of vocation, which is delightful and satisfying. Get Gustav Wingren's LUTHER ON VOCATION, and read particularly the chapters on Cooperation and Regeneration. Good stuff.

Mike Baker said...

I own a copy of Timotheus Verinus. While I agree with all of it and I think it is an important book for people to understand, I would recommend 30 Lutheran books before reading this one.

If Philip Spener's pietistism appears mild to some it is only in view of the radicalism of later Pietists. I would suggest that you read Spener in his own words rather than trusting in people's opinions of him.

Spener's criticism of the Lutheran Orthodoxy of the day was not justified in all places. Like all church movements, it had its birth in a degree of narcissism. His assumption that all Orthodox Lutherans needed some kind of revival is disproven by the wealth of passion-filled, pious writing that came out of Orthodox Lutheranism in that day. Johann Gerhard is the best example. All you have to do is read Sacred Meditations or Meditations on Divine Mercy to see that Lutheran Orthodoxy was not dead.

Spener's concern was that Germany needed an ethical and religious reformation. Spener failed to attribute such behavior to the natural state of sinful men. All people in all times have this problem. He sought to reform the church and breathe life into dead religionism. His fix: throw out dead religion and build a spritual relationship with God.

I always compare such foolishness to a pair of newlyweds who work to try to get a couple who has been married 50 years to start really loving each other. To the newlywed, love is all about passion and feelings. They do not see love in the life of the older couple. They lack discernment. The truth is that intimacy (not passion) is the truest expression of lasting love. Pietism is a shallow newlywed who equates passion with love. We all know better.

Appearantly, Christians were not being Christian enough and the church needed to work to be more relevent and effective. This is always the first step down the road of pietism.

There is never mild pietism or moderate pietism. It is by nature, a liberal movement that tries to update and revitalize the church. The later stages of Pietism were not Spener's vision taken too far. They were Spener's vision taken to its logical conclusion.

Spener's primary error was a dependence on works-righteousness. His primary criticism of the Orthodox Lutheranism in his day was not on doctrinal grounds.. and not even really errors in practice. His concern was that true Christianity should be "practical" for the laity.

Here were the reforms he initially introduced (Since Pietism is rampant in the modern church, I have added our current equivelants in parenthesis to point out similar modern thinking):

1. the earnest and thorough study of the Bible in private meetings. (Small Groups and Conventicles)

2. the Christian priesthood being universal, the laity should share in the spiritual government of the Church (semi-congregationalism with weakened pastoral authority)

3. a knowledge of Christianity must be attended by the practice of it as its indispensable sign and supplement (deeds over creeds, proof of faith, and revivalism)

4. instead of merely didactic, and often bitter, attacks on the heterodox and unbelievers, a sympathetic and kindly treatment of them (less Law & Gospel sermons, more tolerance of theological differences, and unionism)

5. a reorganization of the theological training of the universities, giving more prominence to the devotional life (charismatic enthusiasm)

6. a different style of preaching, namely, in the place of pleasing rhetoric, the implanting of Christianity in the inner or new man, the soul of which is faith, and its effects the fruits of life. (Christian lifestyle preaching. Be more relevant. Stop being so Roman Catholic.)

Spener's suggestions were warmly received by much of the German Church (just as the neo-pietist Purpose Driven Church Concept is today.) They were also strongly opposed by the Orthodox Lutheran theolgians. In many places, Spener's suggestions were not well received.

While Spener was not the most radical leader of the Pietist movement, his ideas were an extreme deviation from the historical understanding of Lutheranism. Every generation of Lutherans has had their Spener. Sinful man is always eager to give the church the "shot in the arm" that he feels it is lacking.

Pietism does not understand that Lutheranism is preservative. Luther championed a conservitive return to old teaching. It is not about the introduction of new things, but the return to very old things. It is not about adding things, but subtracting error. It stands directly opposed to Pietism. The two cannot exist together.

While Lutheranism seeks to returning to apostolic practice and doctrine, Pietism seeks to improve the church through progressive means. There is no room in Luther's reformation for radical new ideas and approaches. As a result, Pietism has more in common with modern Methodism than Lutheranism. In fact, some of the best followers of Pietist thought were not Lutherans at all... we call them Puritans and Quakers.

If you want to see Spener's pietism in action, read the first two parts of Bo Geirtz's great fictional work The Hammer of God . He exposes what the pietists and rationalists of the day really thought and the impact that they had on the church. Geirtz is a perfect example of a Lutheran pastor who achieved everything that Spener wanted to do in terms of spirituality, insight, and passion... without resorting to any of Pietism's errors and while keeping to orthodoxy.

Most importantly, pietism (in all its forms and degrees of maturity) has weak scriptural support. It stands in opposition to Lutheran teaching. It stands against the very Solas of the Reformation. It unseats Sola Scriptura and replaces it with Prima Scriptura. It unseats Sola Fide and replaces it with the synergism of faith + works as proof of salvation. It moves your security away from the objective means of grace and toward the subjective quality of the individual Christian.

It says that if you are not pious enough, then you are not a "real" or "true" Christian.

Bruce Gee said...

Thank you, Mike. Your comment about other Lutheran books is a bit strange: do you mean thirty other Lutheran books about Pietism? If not, well. I could do the same, and probably have read them. Do you mean that I should have reviewed 30 other Lutheran books before reviewing to this one? I'm confused by your comment.

Your comparison of Pietism to the marriage scenario is wonderful and apt. I'll remember and use it, thanks.


Obviously, we don't "all know better" that Pietism is shallow compared to the richness of orthodox practice and doctrine. I am convinced of it. But look inside any Lutheran church in America and you'll find plenty of evidence of people chafing against the liturgy, or against this or another "settled" Lutheran doctrine.
I wish we all knew better.

Thanks for your summary of Spener's pietism. Not everyone who reads it will understand how alarming it is.

Lutheran Lucciola said...

Bruce, go to my blog and take the test that I link to. I have a feeling you are in the same camp I am. I'm curious!;-)

Mike Baker said...

Please allow me to clarify.

I apologize for such a long post. I should have done my usual editing to make it easier to read... I was writing on the fly during a work break. Hopefully this will help:

When I said, I would recommend 30 Lutheran books before reading this one. :

I was attempting to add a personal critque on the review of the book for the blog's audience. I obviously failed to explain that properly.

I meant that a beginner should start with 30 other books on Lutheran theology in general. To further clarify: I would not rank Timotheus Verinus in the top 30 most important books on Confessional Lutheran theology. There are alot of books that are easier to read and offer much more to the reader than pointing out the specific methods of pietism.

I think this book should be read. When I do not put it in the top 30, I am thinking of a list of about 100 must-read books.

This is a good and important book. Pietism is an important subject. I am very glad that you reviewed it on your blog. I was just pointing out that this is not the first book on Lutheran theology that someone should pick up if they were going to start reading about Lutheran doctrine.

When I said, The truth is that intimacy (not passion) is the truest expression of lasting love. Pietism is a shallow newlywed who equates passion with love. We all know better. :

I meant that we all know better that passion is not the truest expression of love. Even many nonbelievers know that. I was trying to point out that the superiority of truth and intimacy over displays of passion is common sense. Pietism throws that common knowledge out the window in favor of self-fulfilling passion. You are totally right. Most people do not know how to identify Pietism (let alone that it is shallow.) That is why a form of it survives at all times in the church.

Thank you for this wonderful post. It is a very well put together review of this book. Pietism is an important subject.

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